The email provider claims to "have traced the attack back to a group that claims to have ties to Russia," a statement that some news outlets took at face value and ran stories misleading readers into thinking this was some kind of nation-state-planned cyber-attack. But in reality, the DDoS attacks have no ties to Russia, weren't even planned to in the first place, and the group behind the attacks denounced being Russian, to begin with. In a private conversation with Bleeping Computer today, one of the group's members detailed yesterday's chain of events.
British experiences in post- war Germany,highlight some general principles which are relevant today: Let us now win the peace. There is a limit to how much preparation can be done in advance because it is impossible to predict actual circumstances on the ground. Therefore military commanders and civilian authorities need to respond flexibly in light of what they encounter.
Democracy cannot be imposed by force or by totalitarian means. If political structures are to last beyond the occupation, they have to be created by local political leaders and accepted by the population as a whole. Personal relationships between occupier and occupied are important. Reconciliation does not happen automatically, but requires a conscious effort on both sides.
It was originally intended that the country would be governed as a single entity by central German administrations, in accordance with decisions made by the four Allies acting jointly through the Allied Control Council in Berlin, but in practice each of the Allies ran their zone more or less independently for the first two years of the occupation.
It was not untilfour years after the end of the war, that the three western zones formally joined together to form the Federal Republic of West Germany, and the Soviet zone became the German Democratic Republic East Germany. This policy paper A case study the fighting for the situation in the British zone, between and Many of the conclusions appear to be equally valid for the US and French zones, although the detailed situation, policies pursued and timescales varied in each zone.
In the east, the German Democratic Republic was to prove a loyal ally of the Soviet Union for over 40 years until the fall of the Berlin Wall in and become, in the meantime, relatively affluent compared to other members of the Soviet bloc.
Politically and diplomatically, Germany was de-nazified, disarmed as an independent military force and the Western and Eastern parts firmly anchored within the NATO and Warsaw Pact alliances. Success, however, was not a foregone conclusion. A superficial understanding of Allied policies and actions and the German response may create unjustified complacency that once victory is achieved and dictatorial regimes removed from power, sufficient financial investment and the adoption of free market economic policies will be enough to create stable and prosperous democracies.
The difficult period of transition, between the end of the war in Europe in May and the creation of an independent Federal Republic of Germany ininvolved hard choices.
Governing the British zone of occupied Germany offers relevant lessons for contemporary operations. The situation in Germany in In May Germany was in chaos. The economy was at a standstill and no central government remained to implement instructions issued by the Allies.
Millions of people were homeless, or attempting to return to homes that no longer existed.
Ivone Kirkpatrick, later appointed head of the German Department and subsequently Permanent Under-Secretary at the Foreign Office, described his first impressions of Germany in Field-Marshal Montgomery, appointed Commander-in-Chief and Military Governor of the British zone of occupation on 22 Maylater recalled the immediate problems they faced: Writing in Januaryhis deputy, General Brian Robertson, described the first phase of the occupation, immediately before and after the German unconditional surrender in May The directives were not many, and much was left to the initiative of individuals … the detachments entered into a land of desolation and bewilderment.
Government above the level of the parish council had ceased. Faced with problems which appeared alarmingly similar to those their predecessors had faced only 25 years earlier, Montgomery, Robertson and their colleagues tried to avoid the mistakes they believed had been made then.
The lessons they drew from the failure to secure a lasting peace after the First World War, were not only that Germany should be completely demilitarised and its industries controlled to prevent future re-armament, but that law and order had to be restored, steps taken to prevent epidemics of disease, and economic activity re-started, to try to prevent the unemployment and social unrest which had, they believed, contributed to the rise of extreme political parties and the Nazi seizure of power in The resources available under his direct command were the army and the civilian Control Commission, which had been established in the final year of the war and transferred to Germany in July and August As early as Julyless than three months after the end of the war, he issued a new draft directive to British army commanders and Control Commission heads of division, finalised on 10 September Unlike earlier wartime directives, the new directive identified steps to be taken to reconstruct German economic and political life, address shortages of food, fuel and housing, improve transport facilities, re-open schools, permit freedom of assembly, licence political parties and prepare for future elections.
British army engineers restored much of the transport infrastructure and the economy started to revive, but severe shortages of labour and raw materials meant that production remained at very low levels. Despite widespread concern over incidents of TB, Hunger Oedema and other diseases, there were no serious epidemics in post-war Germany.
The supply of food, however, was a constant problem. Due to the high cost of food imports and the lack of exports to pay for these due to low levels of production, shortages of labour and raw materials, the zone proved to be an economic liability instead of the expected asset.
What contribution to revival was made by British economic policies during the first four years of occupation? There were some notable achievements, such as restoration of transport infrastructure, and the preservation and effective management of some enterprises taken into Military Government ownership, such as Volkswagen.
Yet the essential British contribution to future German economic revival lay in providing a period of stability after the war, restoring order and the rule of law, and securing the provision of basic services, even though in many areas, such as food and housing, this could only be done at a low level.We’re headed Down Under for this month’s Reader Case Study to chat with Sam and Keith who live in Brisbane Queensland, Australia.
Today we’re going to help them figure out how to pay down their debt and save up for their future! Case Study: Fighting Pain The Problem. An early stage biopharma company wanted to learn more about the competitive landscape for analgesics for the treatment of specific pain triggers.
The company had hit an major milestone in the development of their product but needed to gain additional market intelligence before entering the next phase. I am going to share with you a classic situation which happens all the time.
I hear it a few times a week while working with clients and guiding various doctors. This case study shows how fast methylation can become imbalanced – and how fast it can be rebalanced.
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Boeing: The Fight for Fasteners Case Solution,Boeing: The Fight for Fasteners Case Analysis, Boeing: The Fight for Fasteners Case Study Solution, Boeing initially was set up to provide the Dreamliner to airline company consumers in mid Case Study 2 - “Horseplay or Fighting?” On Monday afternoon, a member of the organization’s newly established Incident Response Team was visited by a supervisor who wanted to discuss a situation in his section.
The Friday before he had been walking to his car after work and noticed a group of employees congregating under a tree on the .