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We have a purpose, a certain audience, a particular stance, a genre, and a medium to consider--and often as not a design. All are important elements that we need to think about carefully. Before we can understand the ways in which the rhetorical appeals work, we must first understand what rhetoric is.
Definition There are many commonly-used definitionsbut for our purposes "rhetoric" refers to all of the following: The art of persuasion, and The study of the art of persuasion, and An individual act of persuasion. We will consider ourselves to be a 3rd party: Example A woman pulls her car up to the Starbucks drive-through, and before she can even order her large cup of coffee, the voice on the other end of the speaker says, "Thank you for choosing Starbucks!
May I interest you in a low-fat apple-banana bran muffin this morning, paired with a tall skinny soy latte?
Who is the audience? What is the act of persuasion taking place? The Starbucks employee is attempting to persuade the woman to buy a muffin and a pricey coffee drink. What would a rhetorical analysis of this situation be like?
An observer--such as yourself--would consider the rhetor, the audience, and the rhetoric that is being used by the rhetor in an attempt to persuade the audience. The observer would analyze the rhetoric--in this case, using the framework of the three rhetorical appeals explained below --and then explain their analysis in an essay.
Has the rhetor made effective use of rhetoric in trying to persuade the audience? Why or why not? You are the silent third party. It is not your job to decide if you are persuaded by the rhetor.
Sometimes you have a very specific idea of who the audience is, but sometimes you just have a very general idea.
Three Rhetorical Appeals "Of the [modes of persuasion] provided through speech there are three species: Kennedy In other words, Aristotle argues that there are three elements to the art of persuasion: The rhetor is perceived by the audience as credible or not.
The rhetor attempts to persuade the audience by making them feel certain emotions. The rhetor attempts to persuade the audience by the use of arguments that they will perceive as logical. We call these three elements rhetorical appeals. Often, however, there is some element of each.
In academic writing, ethos and logos are given more respect than pathos. An essay that relies primarily on pathos, with little use of ethos or logos, is unlikely to be perceived by an academic audience as persuasive. Below, each of these appeals is explained in more detail. Ethos The use of ethos is called an "ethical appeal.
The audience asks themselves, "What does this person know about this topic? When we discuss the ethos of the rhetor, we decide whether it is strong or weak.
We might use a phrase like, "His extrinsic ethos is strong because…" or "His intrinsic ethos is strong, but his extrinsic ethos is weak…" Examples of extrinsic ethos: If you are a successful professional basketball player--like Michael Jordanfor example--talking about basketball to other pro athletes, then your ethos is strong with that particular audience even before you open your mouth or take pen to paper.
Your audience assumes you are knowledgable about your subject because of your experience. However, if you are a college professor of English, then your extrinsic ethos is likely to be pretty weak with your audience. They might just assume that you know nothing about basketball or about professional sports.
Change your audience around, however, and the ethos of each hypothetical rhetor might change. An audience of pre-school kids, for example, would have no idea who Michael Jordan is, and so his extrinsic ethos would be weaker with that audience than with the audience of other pro athletes. Examples of intrinsic ethos: Suddenly your overall ethos takes a nose-dive with your audience, and you become less persuasive.
You look around at the faces of your audience as you speak and project your voice to the back of the room.It started off with a simple question: Who's the most famous athlete in the world?
Biography. Basketball has Michael Jordan. Hockey’s got Wayne Gretzky. The world of soccer holds a high place of honor for Brazilian footballer Pelé, while few cycling aficionados dispute the dominance of Lance Armstrong. This story appears in ESPN The Magazine's Analytics issue on newsstands Feb. SUBSCRIBE TODAY» CHARLOTTE, N.C. -- Five weeks before his 50th birthday, Michael Jordan sits behind his desk. Lance Edward Armstrong (born Lance Edward Gunderson; September 18, ) is a former American professional road racing cyclist.. At age 16, Armstrong began competing as a triathlete and was a national sprint-course triathlon champion in and In , Armstrong began his career as a professional cyclist with the Motorola team. He had notable success between and with the.
Ben Alamar, ESPN's director of sports analytics, devised a formula that combines salary and endorsements with. "Part 1" of the Norton Field Guide to Writing covers the concept of "Rhetorical Situations" ().. Whenever we write, whether it's an email to a friend or a toast for a wedding, an English essay or a résumé, we face some kind of rhetorical situation.
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