Motivational salience Motivation as a desire to perform an action is usually defined as having two parts, directional such as directed towards a positive stimulus or away from a negative one, as well as the activated "seeking phase" and consummatory "liking phase". This type of motivation has neurobiological roots in the basal gangliaand mesolimbic, dopaminergic pathways. Activated "seeking" behavior, such as locomotor activity, is influenced by dopaminergic drugs, and microdialysis experiments reveal that dopamine is released during the anticipation of a reward. Opioid injections in this area produce pleasure, however outside of these hedonic hotspots they create an increased desire.
Of the many that exist, the most prevalent are learning theoriessocial cognitive theorytheories of reasoned action and planned behaviourtranstheoretical model of behavior change, the health action process approach and the BJ Fogg model of behavior change.
Research has also been conducted regarding specific elements of these theories, especially elements like self-efficacy that are common to several of the theories.
Self-efficacy[ edit ] Self-efficacy  is an individual's impression of their own ability to perform a demanding or challenging task such as facing an exam or undergoing surgery. This impression is based upon factors like the individual's prior success in the task or in related tasks, the individual's physiological state, and outside sources of persuasion.
Self-efficacy is thought to be predictive of the amount of effort an individual will expend in initiating and maintaining a behavioural change, so although self-efficacy is not a behavioural change theory per se, it is an important element of many of the theories, including the health belief modelthe theory of planned behaviour and the health action process approach.
Learning theories and behaviour analytic theories of change[ edit ] From behaviourists such as B. Skinner come the learning theorieswhich state that complex behaviour is learned gradually through the modification of simpler behaviours.
Imitation and reinforcement play important roles in these theories, which state that individuals learn by duplicating behaviours they observe in others and that rewards are essential to ensuring the repetition of desirable behaviour. As each simple behaviour is established through imitation and subsequent reinforcementthe complex behaviour develops.
When verbal behaviour is established the organism can learn through rule-governed behaviour and thus not all action needs to be contingency shaped.
Social learning and social cognitive theory[ edit ] According to the social learning theory  more recently expanded as social cognitive theory behavioural change is determined by environmental, personal, and behavioural elements.
Each factor affects each of the others. For example, in congruence with the principles of self-efficacy, an individual's thoughts affect their behaviour and an individual's characteristics elicit certain responses from the social environment.
Likewise, an individual's environment affects the development of personal characteristics as well as the person's behavior, and an individual's behaviour may change their environment as well as the way the individual thinks or feels.
Social learning theory focuses on the reciprocal interactions between these factors, which are hypothesised to determine behavioral change. Theory of reasoned action[ edit ] The theory of reasoned action   assumes that individuals consider a behaviour's consequences before performing the particular behaviour.
As a result, intention is an important factor in determining behaviour and behavioural change. According to Icek Ajzenintentions develop from an individual's perception of a behaviour as positive or negative together with the individual's impression of the way their society perceives the same behaviour.
Thus, personal attitude and social pressure shape intention, which is essential to performance of a behaviour and consequently behavioural change.
Theory of planned behaviour[ edit ] InAjzen expanded upon the theory of reasoned action, formulating the theory of planned behaviour which also emphasises the role of intention in behaviour performance but is intended to cover cases in which a person is not in control of all factors affecting the actual performance of a behaviour.
As a result, the new theory states that the incidence of actual behaviour performance is proportional to the amount of control an individual possesses over the behaviour and the strength of the individual's intention in performing the behaviour.
In his article, Further hypothesises that self-efficacy is important in determining the strength of the individual's intention to perform a behaviour. InFishbein and Ajzen introduced the reasoned action approachthe successor of the theory of planned behaviour.
Transtheoretical or stages of change model[ edit ] According to the transtheoretical model   of behavior change, also known as the stages of change model, states that there are five stages towards behavior change. The five stages, between which individuals may transition before achieving complete change, are precontemplation, contemplation, preparation for action, action, and maintenance.
At the precontemplation stage, an individual may or may not be aware of a problem but has no thought of changing their behavior.
From precontemplation to contemplation, the individual begins thinking about changing a certain behavior. During preparation, the individual begins his plans for change, and during the action stage the individual begins to exhibit new behavior consistently.
An individual finally enters the maintenance stage once they exhibit the new behavior consistently for over six months. A problem faced with the stages of change model is that it is very easy for a person to enter the maintenance stage and then fall back into earlier stages.
Health action process approach[ edit ] The health action process approach HAPA  is designed as a sequence of two continuous self-regulatory processes, a goal-setting phase motivation and a goal-pursuit phase volition.
The second phase is subdivided into a pre-action phase and an action phase. Motivational self-efficacy, outcome-expectancies and risk perceptions are assumed to be predictors of intentions.
This is the motivational phase of the model. The predictive effect of motivational self-efficacy on behaviour is assumed to be mediated by recovery self-efficacy, and the effects of intentions are assumed to be mediated by planning. The latter processes refer to the volitional phase of the model.
The different levels of ability and motivation define whether triggers for behavior change will succeed or fail.Downloadable! The essay is dedicated to the determination of the essence of employee motivation in today’s business environment. The main need-based and process-based theories of motivation and the possibility of their application in modern organizations are considered.
The existence of the relationship between employee motivation and . MOTIVATION IN ORGANIZATIONS INTRODUCTION. Knowing how and why to motivate employees is an important managerial skill.
Knowing how and why to motivate employees is an important managerial skill. THE NATURE OF MOTIVATION IN ORGANISATIONS. Typical adult learning theories encompass the basic concepts of behavioral change and experience. From there, complexities begin to diverge specific theories and concepts in an eclectic barrage of inferences.
Up until the s basic definitions of learning were built around the idea of change in. By Merrilee Henk, WTWL Writer.
Merrilee Henk is a teacher and life long learner. She has a background in psychology and emotional and behavioral disabilities. Abstract: The aim of this paper is to compare and contrast the theories of motivation and how they are used to inspire employees to develop the drive to achieve.
The importance of motivation in organizations and job satisfaction is vital for the achievement of organizational goals and objectives. What is 'Organizational Behavior (OB)' Organizational behavior (OB) is the study of the way people interact within groups.
Normally this study is applied in an attempt to create more efficient.