Choose the Right Synonym for slander Verb maligntraduceaspersevilifycalumniatedefameslander mean to injure by speaking ill of. Noun She is being sued for slander. He was a target of slander. We've heard countless unsupported slanders about her.
See Article History Libertarianism, political philosophy that takes individual liberty to be the primary political value. It may be understood as a form of liberalismthe political philosophy associated with the English philosophers John Locke and John Stuart Millthe Scottish economist Adam Smithand the American statesman Thomas Jefferson.
Liberalism seeks to define and justify the legitimate powers of government in terms of certain natural or God-given individual rights.
The purpose of government, according to liberals, is to protect these and other individual rights, and in general liberals have contended that government power should be limited to that which is necessary to accomplish this task.
Libertarians are classical liberals who strongly emphasize the individual right to liberty. They contend that the scope and powers of government should be constrained so as to allow each individual as much freedom of action as is consistent with a like freedom for everyone else.
Thus, they believe that individuals should be free to behave and to dispose of their property as they see fit, provided that their actions do not infringe on the equal freedom of others.
Historical origins Liberalism and libertarianism have deep roots in Western thought.
A central feature of the religious and intellectual traditions of ancient Israel and ancient Greece was the idea of a higher moral law that applied universally and that constrained the powers of even kings and governments. Christian theologians, including Tertullian in the 2nd and 3rd centuries and St.
Thomas Aquinas in the 13th century, stressed the moral worth of the individual and the division of the world into two realms, one of which was the province of God and thus beyond the power of the state to control.
Libertarianism also was influenced by debates within Scholasticism on slavery and private property. In response to the growth of royal absolutism in early modern Europeearly libertarians, particularly those in the Netherlands and Englanddefended, developed, and radicalized existing notions of the rule of lawrepresentative assemblies, and the rights of the people.
The first well-developed statement of libertarianism, An Agreement of the Peoplewas produced by the radical republican Leveler movement during the English Civil Wars — Presented to Parliament init included the ideas of self-ownership, private property, legal equality, religious toleration, and limited, representative government.
The theory of spontaneous order is a central feature of libertarian social and economic thinking see below Spontaneous order. The American Revolution —83 was a watershed for liberalism. Such values have remained at the core of American political thought ever since.
During the 19th century, governments based on traditional liberal principles emerged in England and the United States and to a smaller extent in continental Europe. The rise of liberalism resulted in rapid technological development and a general increase in living standardsthough large segments of the population remained in povertyespecially in the slums of industrial cities.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many liberals began to worry that persistent inequalities of income and wealth and the tremendous pace of social change were undermining democracy and threatening other classical liberal values, such as the right to moral autonomy.
Fearful of what they considered a new despotism of the wealthy, modern liberals advocated government regulation of markets and major industries, heavier taxation of the rich, the legalization of trade unionsand the introduction of various government-funded social services, such as mandatory accident insurance.
The new liberalism was exemplified by the English philosophers L. Greenwho argued that democratic governments should aim to advance the general welfare by providing direct services and benefits to citizens. Meanwhile, however, classical liberals such as the English philosopher Herbert Spencer insisted that the welfare of the poor and the middle classes would be best served by free markets and minimal government.
In the 20th century, so-called welfare state liberalism, or social democracyemerged as the dominant form of liberalism, and the term liberalism itself underwent a significant change in definition in English-speaking countries.
Particularly after World War IImost self-described liberals no longer supported completely free markets and minimal government, though they continued to champion other individual rights, such as the right to freedom of speech.
Libertarian philosophy Classical liberalism rests on a presumption of liberty—that is, on the presumption that the exercise of liberty does not require justification but that all restraints on liberty do.
Because no individual has the right to control the peaceful activities of other self-owning individuals—e. Legitimate governments are therefore severely limited in their authority.
Nonaggression axiom According to the principle that libertarians call the nonaggression axiom, all acts of aggression against the rights of others—whether committed by individuals or by governments—are unjust. Indeed, libertarians believe that the primary purpose of government is to protect citizens from the illegitimate use of force.
Accordingly, governments may not use force against their own citizens unless doing so is necessary to prevent the illegitimate use of force by one individual or group against another.Some exclude beliefs and practices that many people passionately defend as religious.
For example, their definition might requite a belief in a God or Goddess or combination of Gods and Goddesses who are responsible for the creation of the universe and for its continuing operation. Short Essay on ‘Work is Worship’ Category: Essays, Paragraphs and Articles On February 3, By Vikash Pathak Meaning of ‘Work is Worship’: Every man is born with two hands and a mouth.
Definition. Hearing loss exists when there is diminished sensitivity to the sounds normally heard. The terms hearing impaired or hard of hearing are usually reserved for people who have relative insensitivity to sound in the speech frequencies. Recent Examples on the Web: Adjective.
Each essay will identify a contemporary issue, discuss it through the lens of heathen myths, and suggest a solution based on heathen ideals. — Sigal Samuel, The Atlantic, "What To Do When Racists Try To Hijack Your Religion," 2 Nov.
The intrigues of those heathen adversaries moreover qualified as badges of honor. Confusion definition, the act of confusing. See more.
BCCI Competency Essay Writing Guide. Be clear in your working definition of each and then give examples to demonstrate them. Develop, coordinate, and facilitate public worship/spiritual practices appropriate to diverse settings and needs.