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The key is the macroscopic examination of material different materials can be combined on a microscopic scale, such as in alloying, but the resulting material is macroscopically homogenous. The advantage of composites is that they usually exhibit the best qualities of there constituents and often some qualities that neither constituent possesses.
The properties that can be improved by forming a composite material include. For example ordinary plate glass fractures at stresses of only a few thousand PSI yet glass fibers have strengths of to PSI in commercially available forms and about PSI in laboratory prepared forms.
Obviously, then the geometry of a fiber is somehow crucial to the evaluation of its strength and must be considered in structural applications.
More properly, the paradox of a fiber having different properties from the bulk form is due to the more perfect structure of a fiber. Moreover, there are fewer internal defects in fibers than in bulk material.
For example, in materials that have dislocations, the fiber form has fewer dislocations than the bulk form. Strength and stiffnesses of a few selected fiber materials are shown in the following table Fiber or wire Density,? Typically, the matrix is considerably lower density ,stiffness and strength than the fibers.
However ,the combination of matrix and fiber can have very high strength and stiffness ,yet still have low density.
Lamination is used to combine the best aspect of the constituent layers in order to achieve a more use full material. Laminated fibrous composites are a hybrid class of composites involving both fibrous composites and lamination techniques.
A more common name is laminated fiber-reinforced composites. Here, layers of fibrous reinforced material are built up with the fiber direction of each layer typically oriented in different directions to give different strengths and stiffnesses in the various directions.
Thus, the strength and stiffnesses of the laminated reinforced composite can be tailored to the specific design requirements of the structural element being built.
Example of laminated fibrous reinforced composites include Polaris missile cases, fiberglass boat hulls, aircraft wings panels and body section, tennis rackets, golf club shafts etc.
The particles can be either metallic or nonmetallic as can the matrix. Some characteristics are merely modification of conventional behavior; others are totally new and require new analytical and experimental procedures.
Most common engineering materials are homogeneous and isotropic: A homogeneous body has uniform properties throughout, i. An isotropic body has material properties that are the same in every direction at a point in a body, i. Bodies with temperature dependent isotropic material properties are not homogenous when subjected to a temperature gradient, but still are isotropic.
In contrast, composite materials are often inhomogeneous or heterogeneous — the two terms will be used interchangeably and nonisotropic orthotropic or, more generally, anisotropic: An inhomogeneous body has nonuniform properties over the body, i.Design Considerations ¾Failure may be based on first ply failure or last ply failure.
¾Laminate selection is a computationally intensive and repetitive task due to the many possibilities of fiber/matrix combinations, material systems, and stacking sequence. In classical design style there should always be an equal amount of items.
An example of this is a grand marble fireplace with a pair of sconces on either side and a . To demonstrate its potential, he recently fabricated a copy of Eero Saarinen's classic Tulip Chair, substituting a wood-look Ekoa film sandwich for the original plywood. other partial design factors have a range of values, where the.
specific valu. e is found by relevant tests. In any case, the overall. design factor K cannot be less than 4. Two design methods are given. in.
EN Both. methods use analytical classical laminate theory to establish the. fibre direction, matrix direction and shear. stress. Design Considerations ¾Failure may be based on first ply failure or last ply failure. ¾Laminate selection is a computationally intensive and repetitive task due to the many possibilities of fiber/matrix combinations, material systems, and stacking sequence.
Design of Laminate Based on Classical Lamination Theory” INTRODUCTION The word “composite” in composite material signifies that two or more materials are combined on a macroscopic scale to form a useful material - Design of Laminate Based on Classical Lamination Theory” introduction.
The key is the macroscopic examination of material different materials can be combined on a microscopic scale, .