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In this context, it is essential for those concerned with policy and legislation on alcohol to have a clear Essay on pub culture of the sociocultural functions and meanings of drinking. This section outlines the principal conclusions that can be drawn from the available cross-cultural material regarding the symbolic uses of alcoholic beverages, the social functions of drinking-places and the roles of alcohol in transitional and celebratory rituals.
Symbolic roles From the ethnographic material available, it is clear that in all cultures where more than one type of alcoholic beverage is available, drinks are classified in terms of their social meaning, and the classification of drinks is used to define the social world.
Alcohol is a symbolic vehicle for identifying, describing, constructing and manipulating cultural systems, values, interpersonal relationships, behavioural norms and expectations. Choice of beverage is rarely a matter of personal taste. Situation definer At the simplest level, drinks are used to define the nature of the occasion.
In the Weiner Becken in Austria, sekt is drunk on formal occasions, while schnapps is reserved for more intimate, convivial gatherings - the type of drink served defining both the nature of the event and the social relationship between the drinkers.
Even in societies less bound by long-standing traditions and customs, where one might expect to find a more individualistic, subjective approach to the choice of drinks, the social meanings of different beverages are clearly defined and clearly understood.
A US survey Klein, examined perceptions of the situational appropriateness of various types of alcoholic drink, finding that wine, but not spirits or beer, is considered an appropriate accompaniment to a meal; wine and spirits, but not beer, are appropriate drinks for celebratory events, while beer is the most appropriate drink for informal, relaxation-oriented occasions.
In cultures with a more established heritage of traditional practices, perceptions of situational appropriateness may, however, involve more complex and subtle distinctions, and rules governing the uses of certain classes of drink are likely to be more rigidly observed.
In France, for example, the aperitif is drunk before the meal, white wine is served before red, brandy and digestifs are served only at the end of the meal and so on Clarisse, ; Nahoum-Grappe, Among Hungarian Gypsies, equally strict rules apply to brandy: It would be regarded as highly inappropriate to serve or drink brandy outside these specific situational contexts Stewart, Status indicator Choice of beverage is also a significant indicator of social status.
In France, by contrast, where wine-drinking is commonplace and confers no special status, the young elite are turning to often imported beers McDonald, ; Nahoum-Grappe, Preference for high-status beverages may be an expression of aspirations, rather than a reflection of actual position in the social hierarchy.
There may also be a high degree of social differentiation within a single category of beverage.
Purcell notes that in Ancient Rome, wine was not simply the drink of the elite: Wine was, and is today in many cultures, "a focus of eloquent choices".
Certain drinks, for example, have become symbols of national identity: Guinness for the Irish, tequila for Mexicans, whisky for Scots, ouzo for Greeks etc. In other words, the older peasant drinks cider; the younger person outside agriculture opts for beer.Numerous organizations, nowadays, use the rite of degradation as a means of control.
Many deliberately worsen the situation when dissolving a removed employeeÐŽ¦s social identity and power in attempt to disseminate the importance of complying with organizational rules and culture.
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Montgomery, Collection Services Coordinator, Western Kentucky University. Feb 25, · Hi I have to write an essay based on the topic:"PUB CULTURE IN INDIA - SHOULD IT BE CURBED?" The word-limit is words. This is specially in connection with the untoward actions taken by some Hindu-groups in Mangalore,in India,rutadeltambor.com: Resolved.