Fertility migration and various related factors

But this is unlikely to be the case for much longer: Less than 20 years from now, the number of babies born to Muslims is expected to modestly exceed births to Christians, according to new Pew Research Center demographic estimates. While the relatively young Christian population of a region like sub-Saharan Africa is projected to grow in the decades ahead, the same cannot be said for Christian populations everywhere. This is especially true in Europe, where the number of deaths already is estimated to exceed the number of births among Christians.

Fertility migration and various related factors

Reduces androgen concentration by inhibiting gonadotropin secretion by the pituitary gland Decreases prostate size by decreasing cellular mass anemia, immunosuppression associated with repeated administration. Long-term use will increase prostate size and predispose to prostatic cysts, bacterial infections, and abscesses short-course therapy reduces prostatic secretory capability for 2 months Dihydrotestosterone DHT Receptor blockers anti-androgen flutamide blocks DHT produced from testosterone activity by competing for DHT receptors Decreases prostate size in dogs within 10 days to 6 weeks of treatment prostatic hyperplasia recurs within 2 months if treatment stopped.

No effects on libido, sperm production or fertility in dogs. Progestins Megestrol acetate reduces serum testosterone concentration, inhibit DHT receptor binding, decreases DHT levels, and decreases the number of androgen receptors reduces prostate size and eradicates associated symptoms relapse in 10 to 24 months when treatment discontinued.

No long-term studies on side effects on the dog. Not approved for use in males approved use in bitches for other conditions restricted to 32 days No effects on sperm or fertility. May help to maintain short period of breeding soundness in BPH males prior to neutering. When bacterial infection occurs concurrently with benign prostatic hyperplasia BPHthe condition is known as prostatitis.

Prostatitis occurs when bacteria that normally inhabit the male urethra ascend into the prostate gland. Conditions of BPH predispose the prostate to infection because this disorder creates an environment suitable for bacterial proliferation.

Common organisms identified in causing prostatitis include: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp. Though Brucella canis may infect the prostate, it more commonly infects testicular tissue.

Fungal infections are less common but occasionally occur. In some instances, testicular infections may spread to the prostate.

Prostatitis is the most common prostatic disorder occurring in intact male dogs. In some dogs, particularly those over 5 years of age, prostatitis leads to the formation of abscesses within the prostate.

Prostatitis is rare in castrated males. Prostatitis may occur as an acute or chronic condition. In the acute phase, fever and lethargy are present, the dog may strain when urinating or defecating, and the dog may move with a stiff gait.

Swelling of the scrotum and hindlimbs may also be observed. Dogs that have prostatic abscessation may present with symptoms of shock rapid heartbeat [tachycardia], delayed capillary refill time, pale or muddy mucus membranes, weak pulse, vomitingperitonitis, and systemic infection sepsis if the abscess ruptures.

Chronic prostatitis may occur following an acute phase or may develop without symptoms. Evidence suspicious of chronic prostatitis includes poor semen quality, decreased libido associated with pain upon prostatic contraction during ejaculation, and blood in the urine or semen sample.

A culture and sensitivity of urine removed from the bladder by cystocentesis is helpful for identifying the causative bacterial organism. Pain usually impedes the process of obtaining a prostatic fluid sample from the patient.

Additionally, manipulation of the prostate should be avoided to prevent further spread of bacterial infection. In chronic cases, the prostate gland is typically painless or not as painful as in acute cases.

This allows for collection of prostatic fluid for bacterial analysis since bacteria are not always found in the urine of dogs suffering from chronic prostatitis. Radiographic and ultrasonographic changes in the prostate are often apparent in dogs with chronic prostatitis.

In cases where prostatic fluid culture does not identify an infectious organism, but diagnostic imaging is indicative of disease, biopsy of the prostate tissue will confirm a diagnosis of prostatitis.

Canine Reproduction Part 5

Aggressive treatment of acute prostatitis may prevent the infection from developing into chronic prostatitis. Results from urine culture and sensitivity screening will assist the clinician in selecting an antimicrobial drug with low potential for microorganism resistance and ability to maintain therapeutic concentrations in the urine and tissues.

The anti-microbial agent is administered for at least weeks to ensure complete elimination of the infection. Additionally, it is recommended that urine cultures and prostatic fluid cultures be analyzed days after completion of drug therapy to ensure eradication of the infectious organisms.

When treated aggressively and thoroughly, acute prostatitis is expected to have a good prognosis for recovery. Chronic prostatitis is more challenging to treat and treatment difficulties are compounded by the fact that many anti-microbial drugs cannot efficiently cross the prostatic tissues and enter the prostatic fluid.

Some anti-microbial agents are more soluble than others are and these are most effective for the treatment of chronic prostatitis. Therapy is typically continued for weeks.

Following completion of drug treatment, urine and prostatic fluid culture is performed at days and 30 days following completion of treatment to ensure elimination of the infection.

In many cases, follow-up culture indicates insufficient resolution of the infection by the first treatment regimen and a 3-month course of antibiotics with adjuvant therapy hormone therapy or castration to reduce concurrent prostatic hyperplasia is prescribed.Alexander Betts is Professor of Forced Migration and International Affairs, the Director of the Refugee Studies Centre, and a Senior Research Fellow of Green-Templeton College, at the University of Oxford.

Fertility migration and various related factors

The Program Effort Data. Here are the famous program effort data from Mauldin and Berelson. This extract consist of observations on an index of social setting, an index of family planning effort, and the percent decline in the crude birth rate (CBR) between and , for 20 countries in Latin America.

Population, in human biology, the whole number of inhabitants occupying an area (such as a country or the world) and continually being modified by increases (births and immigrations) and losses (deaths and emigrations).

As with any biological population, the size of a human population is limited by the supply of food, the effect of diseases, and other environmental factors.

ASSISTED COLONIZATION is the intentional movement and release of an organism outside its indigenous range to avoid extinction of populations of the focal species.. ECOLOGICAL REPLACEMENT is the intentional movement and release of an organism outside its indigenous range to perform a specific ecological function..

The basic components of population change

See the 3-fold chart immediately below for distinctions between three forms of. Fertility factor (demography) Jump to navigation Jump to search Fertility factors are determinants of the number of children that an individual is likely to have. The negative effect of support from many different people is probably related to .

The percentage of fertility in a region is affected by many factors, but two of these factors have a greater impact on this percentage in many developing countries than the others.

These factors are the female literacy rate and the availability and proper use of contraceptives within the country. A high percentage of women are not entitled to an .

5 Main Factors Affecting the Fertility in Women