And Henry Kissinger do not belong in the same sentence even if you have to break the rules of grammar for it.
Determinants of per capita GDP growth[ edit ] In national income accounting, per capita output can be calculated using the following factors: Productivity improving technologies economic history Economic growth has traditionally been attributed to the accumulation of human and physical capital and the increase in productivity and creation of new goods arising from technological innovation.
Increases in productivity are the major factor responsible for per capita economic growth — this has been especially evident since the midth century. Most of the economic growth in the 20th century was due to increased output per unit of labor, materials, energy, and land less input per widget.
The balance of the growth in output has come from using more inputs. Both of these changes increase output. The increased output included more of the same goods produced previously and new goods and services.
During the Second Industrial Revolutiona major factor of productivity growth was the substitution of inanimate power for human and animal labor. Also there was a great increase in power as steam powered electricity generation and internal combustion supplanted limited wind and water power.
Other productivity improvements included mechanized agriculture and scientific agriculture including chemical fertilizers and livestock and poultry management, and the Green Revolution. Interchangeable parts made with machine tools powered by electric motors evolved into mass productionwhich is universally used today.
Real food prices fell due to improvements in transportation and trade, mechanized agriculturefertilizersscientific farming and the Green Revolution. Great sources of productivity improvement in the late 19th century were railroads, steam ships, horse-pulled reapers and combine harvestersand steam -powered factories.
By the late 19th century both prices and weekly work hours fell because less labor, materials, and energy were required to produce and transport goods. However, real wages rose, allowing workers to improve their diet, buy consumer goods and afford better housing.
New goods and services included television, air conditioning and commercial aviation aftercreating enough new demand to stabilize the work week.
Productivity in the United States grew at an increasing rate throughout the 19th century and was most rapid in the early to middle decades of the 20th century.
Demographic changes[ edit ] Demographic factors may influence growth by changing the employment to population ratio and the labor force participation rate. Women with fewer children and better access to market employment tend to join the labor force in higher percentages.
There is a reduced demand for child labor and children spend more years in school. The increase in the percentage of women in the labor force in the U. Spending wave Other factors affecting growth[ edit ] Political institutions, property rights, and rule of law[ edit ] See also: These included new laws favorable to the establishment of business, including contract law and laws providing for the protection of private property, and the abolishment of anti-usury laws.
Enforcement of contractual rights is necessary for economic development because it determines the rate and direction of investments. When the rule of law is absent or weak, the enforcement of property rights depends on threats of violence, which causes bias against new firms because they can not demonstrate reliability to their customers.
Thanks to the underlying homogeneity of its land and people, England was able to achieve a unified legal and fiscal system since the Middle Ages that enabled it to substantially increase the taxes it raised after Many of these intermediate level institutions relied on informal private-order arrangements that combined with public-order institutions associated with states, to lay the foundations of modern rule of law states.
In many urban areas the poor "invade" private or government land to build their houses, so they do not hold title to these properties. Much unregistered property is held in informal form through various property associations and other arrangements.
Reasons for extra-legal ownership include excessive bureaucratic red tape in buying property and building. In some countries it can take over steps and up to 14 years to build on government land. Other causes of extra-legal property are failures to notarize transaction documents or having documents notarized but failing to have them recorded with the official agency.
Unregistered businesses and lack of accepted accounting methods are other factors that limit potential capital. Specifically, "democracy increases future GDP by encouraging investment, increasing schooling, inducing economic reforms, improving public goods provision, and reducing social unrest.
This is due to endogeneity - forces that drive economic growth also drive entrepreneurship. In other words, the empirical analysis of the impact of entrepreneurship on growth is difficult because of the joint determination of entrepreneurship and economic growth.
A few papers use quasi-experimental designs, and have found that entrepreneurship and the density of small businesses indeed have a causal impact on regional growth. Capital is subject to diminishing returns because of the amount that can be effectively invested and because of the growing burden of depreciation.
In the development of economic theory the distribution of income was considered to be between labor and the owners of land and capital. New products create demand, which is necessary to offset the decline in employment that occurs through labor saving technology and to a lesser extent employment declines due to savings in energy and materials.
Also, the creation of new services has been more important than invention of new goods.IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history.
Examine the reasons why Japan embarked on an aggressive, militaristic foreign policy and assess the extent to which this was successful in the first half of the 20th rutadeltambor.com the roots of Japanese militarism were planted with the fall of the Tokug 1/5(1). Free coursework on Lessons Of The Japanese Economic Miracle For The West from rutadeltambor.com, the UK essays company for essay, dissertation and coursework writing.
But this economic policy of the U.S. is almost a complete reversal of the economic policies of Japan and the Four Little Tigers; instead of fostering new businesses and high tech.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time. It is conventionally measured as the percent rate of increase in real gross domestic product, or real GDP..
Growth is usually calculated in real terms - i.e., inflation-adjusted terms – to eliminate the distorting effect of inflation on the price of goods produced. RACE, CULTURE, AND EQUALITY 1 by Thomas Sowell. During the 15 years that I spent researching and writing my recently completed trilogy on racial and cultural issues, 2 I was struck again and again with how common huge disparities in income and wealth have been for centuries, in countries around the world-- and yet how each country regards its own particular disparities as unusual, if not unique.
In Kent Calder wrote a seminal essay on the reactive nature of Japanese foreign policy, focusing essentially on economic issues.
Subsequently, however, the reactive state thesis has been used to analyse Japan's foreign policy in general.