Upon further reflection, however, I realized that this was actually a good question, for which the usual approaches to teaching psychology provided too few answers. During the next several years, I developed lessons and techniques to help psychology students learn how to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of scientific and nonscientific kinds of evidence and to help them draw sound conclusions. It seemed to me that learning about the quality of evidence and drawing appropriate conclusions from scientific research were central to teaching critical thinking CT in psychology. More importantly, the techniques and approach described below are ones that are supported by scientific research.
History[ edit ] The earliest documentation of critical thinking are the teachings of Socrates recorded by Plato. Socrates established the fact that one cannot depend upon those in "authority" to have sound knowledge and insight.
He demonstrated that persons may have power and high position and yet be deeply confused and irrational. He established the importance of asking deep questions that probe profoundly into thinking before we accept ideas as worthy of belief. He established the importance of seeking evidence, closely examining reasoning and assumptions, analyzing basic concepts, and tracing out implications not only of what is said but of what is done as well.
His method of questioning is now known as "Socratic Questioning" and is the best known critical thinking teaching strategy. In his mode of questioning, Socrates highlighted the need for thinking for clarity and logical consistency.
Socrates asked people questions to reveal their irrational thinking or lack of reliable knowledge. Socrates demonstrated that having authority does not ensure accurate knowledge.
He established the method of questioning beliefs, closely inspecting assumptions and relying on evidence and sound rationale. Plato recorded Socrates' teachings and carried on the tradition of critical thinking. Aristotle and subsequent Greek skeptics refined Socrates' teachings, using systematic thinking and asking questions to ascertain the true nature of reality beyond the way things appear from a glance.
Critical thinking was described by Richard W.
Paul as a movement in two waves Its details vary amongst those who define it. According to Barry K. Beyercritical thinking means making clear, reasoned judgments.
During the process of critical thinking, ideas should be reasoned, well thought out, and judged. National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking  defines critical thinking as the "intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.
Definitions[ edit ] Traditionally, critical thinking has been variously defined as follows: Critical thinking is not 'hard' thinking nor is it directed at solving problems other than 'improving' one's own thinking.
Critical thinking is inward-directed with the intent of maximizing the rationality of the thinker.
One does not use critical thinking to solve problems—one uses critical thinking to improve one's process of thinking. Some definitions of critical thinking exclude these subjective practices.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message The ability to reason logically is a fundamental skill of rational agents, hence the study of the form of correct argumentation is relevant to the study of critical thinking.
It followed a philosophy where the thinker was removed from the train of thought and the connections and the analysis of the connect was devoid of any bias of the thinker.The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to thought (thinking). Thought (also called thinking) – the mental process in which beings form psychological associations and models of the world.
Thinking is manipulating information, as when we form concepts, engage in problem solving, reason and make rutadeltambor.comt, the act of thinking, produces thoughts. If you like this book, you may well enjoy applying your Critical Thinking skills to the big debates in contemporary science (which my book Paradigm Shift is about) - or to those evergreen problems of philosophy which my two '' books present.
These books present problems in very short passages - ideal for group brainstorming! Understand the links among teaching, learning and assessment.
Application of critical thinking skills in lab work and meetings. Understanding of technical and theoretical aspects of the research.
developing the skills of historical research and analysis, and are able to express their interpretations of the past in oral and written form.
Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Design and planning resource for classroom teachers, instructional designers, and professors of education.
The glossary lists, describes, and provides links for . Teaching and Assessing Critical Thinking Skills for Argument Analysis in Psychology plicitly teaching critical thinking skills infused directly into.