Antiquity[ edit ] In Ancient Greece, Hippocrates and his followers are generally credited with the first classification system for mental illnesses, including maniamelancholiaparanoiaphobias and Scythian disease transvestism. They held that they were due to different kinds of imbalance in four humors. Middle ages to Renaissance[ edit ] An elaborate classification of mental disorders was developed in the 10th century by Arabian psychologist Najab ud-din Unhammad.
Environmental[ edit ] Rachman proposed three pathways to acquiring fear conditioning: The UCS originates from an aversive or traumatizing event in the person's life, such as almost falling down from a great height.
The original fear of almost falling down is associated with being on a high place, leading to a fear of heights.
This direct conditioning model, though very influential in the theory of fear acquisition, is not the only way to acquire a phobia. Vicarious fear acquisition is learning to fear something, not by a subject's own experience of fear, but by watching others reacting fearfully observational learning.
For instance, when a child sees a parent reacting fearfully to an animal, the child can become afraid of the animal as well.
For instance, fearing electrical wire after having heard that touching it causes an electric shock. To meet the criteria for a phobia there must also be symptoms of impairment and avoidance.
Impairment is defined as being unable to complete routine tasks whether occupational, academic or social.
In acrophobia an impairment of occupation could result from not taking a job solely because of its location at the top floor of a building, or socially not participating in a social event at a theme park. The avoidance aspect is defined as behavior that results in the omission of an aversive event that would otherwise occur, with the goal of preventing anxiety.
This system has been found to play a role in emotion processing  and the insula, in particular, may contribute through its role in maintaining autonomic functions. In the processing of emotional stimuli, studies on phobic reactions to facial expressions have indicated that these areas are involved in processing and responding to negative stimuli.
Stimulation of this area decreases conditioned fear responses, so its role may be in inhibiting the amygdala and its reaction to fearful stimuli. When dealing with fear, the hippocampus receives impulses from the amygdala that allow it to connect the fear with a certain sense, such as a smell or sound.
It processes the events associated with fear and is linked to social phobia and other anxiety disorders. The amygdala's ability to respond to fearful stimuli occurs through the process of fear conditioning. Similar to classical conditioningthe amygdala learns to associate a conditioned stimulus with a negative or avoidant stimulus, creating a conditioned fear response that is often seen in phobic individuals.
In this way, the amygdala is responsible for not only recognizing certain stimuli or cues as dangerous but plays a role in the storage of threatening stimuli to memory.
|Phobia - Wikipedia||Sodomy and Other "Crimes Against Nature" King Henry VIII Until the nineteenth century, same-sex sexual activity particularly between men was referred to in Anglo-American texts under the terms "unnatural acts," "crimes against nature," "sodomy," or "buggery. This included masturbation, "fornication," bestiality, and oral or anal sex whatever the sex of the participants.|
|Mathematics disorder - children, causes, person, people, brain, skills, health, Definition||This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract What do we mean when we say that a mental condition is a medical disorder rather than a normal form of human suffering or a problem in living?|
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|The New Definition of a Mental Disorder | Psychology Today||For a mental state to classify as a disorder, it generally needs to cause dysfunction.|
The basolateral nuclei or basolateral amygdala and the hippocampus interact with the amygdala in the storage of memory, which suggests why memories are often remembered more vividly if they have emotional significance. When the fear or aggression response is initiated, the amygdala releases hormones into the body to put the human body into an "alert" state, which prepares the individual to move, run, fight, etc.
This circuit incorporates the process of receiving stimuli, interpreting it and releasing certain hormones into the bloodstream.
The parvocellular neurosecretory neurons of the hypothalamus release corticotropin-releasing hormone CRHwhich is sent to the anterior pituitary. Here the pituitary releases adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTHwhich ultimately stimulates the release of cortisol.
In relation to anxiety, the amygdala is responsible for activating this circuit, while the hippocampus is responsible for suppressing it. Glucocorticoid receptors in the hippocampus monitor the amount of cortisol in the system and through negative feedback can tell the hypothalamus to stop releasing CRH.
In phobic patients, therefore, high amounts of cortisol may be present, or alternatively, there may be low levels of glucocorticoid receptors or even serotonin 5-HT.
Damage to the cortical areas involved in the limbic system such as the cingulate cortex or frontal lobes have resulted in extreme changes in emotion. Specifically, the removal of these lobes results in decreased fear, confirming its role in fear recognition and response.
Bilateral damage to the medial temporal lobes, which is known as Urbach—Wiethe disease, exhibits similar symptoms of decreased fear and aggression, but also an inability to recognize emotional expressions, especially angry or fearful faces.
While lesions in the amygdala can inhibit its ability to recognize fearful stimuli, other areas such as the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the basolateral nuclei of the amygdala can affect the region's ability to not only become conditioned to fearful stimuli, but to eventually extinguish them.
The basolateral nuclei, through receiving stimulus info, undergo synaptic changes that allow the amygdala to develop a conditioned response to fearful stimuli. Lesions in this area, therefore, have been shown to disrupt the acquisition of learned responses to fear. This suggests there is a pathway or circuit among the amygdala and nearby cortical areas that process emotional stimuli and influence emotional expression, all of which can be disrupted when an area becomes damaged.
The DSM-IV-TR states that if a feared stimulus, whether it be an object or a social situation, is absent entirely in an environment, a diagnosis cannot be made. An example of this situation would be an individual who has a fear of mice but lives in an area devoid of mice.The New Definition of a Mental Disorder Is it an improvement or another brazen attempt to name a non-existing thing?
Posted Jul 23, The concept of mental disorder is at the foundation of psychiatry as a medical discipline, at the heart of scholarly and public disputes about which mental conditions should be classified as pathological and which as normal suffering or problems of living, and has ramifications for psychiatric diagnosis, research, and policy.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Such features may be persistent, relapsing and remitting, or occur as a single episode.
Many disorders have been described, with signs and symptoms that vary widely between specific disorders. Mental illness definition is - any of a broad range of medical conditions (such as major depression, schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, or panic disorder) that are marked primarily by sufficient disorganization of personality, mind, or emotions to impair normal psychological functioning and cause marked distress or disability and.
Nov 14, · Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is defined as a pathological anxiety that usually occurs after an individual experiences or witnesses severe trauma that constitutes a threat to the physical integrity or life of the individual or of another person. Brain structures associated with the body’s reaction to fear and stress can be seen in the.
Definition Behavior modification is a treatment approach, based on the principles of operant conditioning, that replaces undesirable behaviors with more desirable ones .